Tired of Rules: Video Game Design, Women, and the Language of Formalism


The following article by Rachel Simone Weil was first published on Medium on March 21, 2015.

Last week, I was on a SXSW panel with the always-lovely Davey Wreden (Stanley Parable), George Royer (God of Blades, Monstrocards), and Shawn Sprockett. In our panel, titled “Design Perspectives on Meaningful Choice,” we discussed whether game designers can actually design meaningfulness into games through mechanics and opportunities for players to make choices. The discussion veered into the topic of video game formalism, and I hinted at a little personal skepticism on the topic. I thought I’d take the opportunity to expand on those thoughts in a more appropriate forum… the internet!

The belief that video game mechanics, structures, and logical reasoning are the core of or most essential part of a video game has often bothered me, and until recently, I didn’t know why. After all, I’m a big fan of logic puzzles and problem solving.

But then it struck me: Historically, when scholars or experts talk about the importance of structures, reasoning, and logic, and whenever those things are cited as integral to a certain discipline or field of study, the next breath is so often used to justify why women have been excluded from it and sometimes to suggest that their continued exclusion in warranted.

Consider that in the late 1800s, for example, opponents to women’s suffrage argued that women should not be granted the right to vote because they weren’t capable of the logical thought that was inherent to democracy and voting in particular.

“If the voters of this country could think always coolly, and if they could deliberate, if they could go by judgment and not by passion, our institutions would survive forever, eternal as the foundations of the continent itself […] What we want in this country is to avoid emotional suffrage, and what we need is to put more logic into public affairs and less feeling. There are spheres in which feeling should be paramount. There are kingdoms in which the heart should reign supreme. That kingdom belongs to woman.” –Sen. George G. Vest, 1887

And indeed, we can observe similar kinds of connections between gender and “logical reasoning” in game design texts as well. For example, Jesse Schell’s popular game design textbook The Art of Game Design claims that video games “at their core are an inherently more male than female activity” due to the author’s belief that the core of gaming is “mastering abstract formal systems.” Schell goes on to write:

“The introduction of affordable computers gave us a type of game that had all social aspects removed, had most verbal and emotional aspects removed, was largely divorced from the real world, was generally hard to learn, and offered the possibility for unlimited virtual destruction. It is hardly surprising that early computer and videogames were primarily popular with a male audience. As digital technology has evolved to the point that videogames can now support emotional character portrayals, richer stories, and the opportunity to play against real people while talking to them, the female audience for videogames has been commensurately growing.”

Here, we see a number of wild claims, including the notion that women were uninterested in early computer games because they were “hard to learn.” Not only does Schell suggest that women are not smart enough to learn something as mentally challenging as a video game, he offloads responsibility for the gender divide in gaming to computing technology. Schell’s discussion of gender appears under the sub-heading “The Medium is the Misogynist?” and thus frames the discussion in terms of the idea that the medium, the computer, the technology, is sexist rather than the people who build and interpret it.

Is it true that men’s brains are more capable of abstract reasoning? The evidence for this claim is dubious and continues to be called into question by scientific study. But its veracity is almost irrelevant from my perspective.

Every time I read another scholar describe how important formal systems are to games, and that logic and rules and structure are the most essential components of video games, I’m immediately put on guard because I understand how arguments like these have been wielded against me.

I don’t believe that video game formalists are sexist or don’t want women to participate in game development or culture. What I do believe is that there is a long history of using the centrality of logic and reason and abstract thinking as justification for the suggestion that women “naturally” do not belong in a certain space. In the case of video games, these connections can unfairly offload responsibility from the people who make and think about games and on to things like “brain differences,” “the core of gaming,” and “computer technology.” Perhaps there are other women like myself who see the language of video game formalism and are made weary by it, reminded of how so many of these arguments end.


Clip-art art history and a cute 1980s manga about assembly language programming


HOW TO マシン語 (How to Mashingo; lit., “How to Machine Language”) is a cute Japanese comic book that teaches readers how to write machine code for Z80 and 6809 CPUs. First published in 1987, this softcover manga would have been intended for those who wanted to learn how to write advanced programs for early Japanese home computers such as the 6809-based Fujitsu FM-7 series or Z80-based MSX and NEC PC-8801. Those of us living stateside might not recognize these computers, but the 6809 and Z80 CPUs were in more familiar computers and game consoles as well. The 6809 appears in Radio Shack’s TRS-80 Color Computer and the Vectrex game console, while the Z80 could be found in a vast number of early personal computers and game systems, including the Nintendo Game Boy, Sega Master System, and the original Pac-Man arcade cabinet.

I came upon this unique book when my pal Brandon sent me an image of the cover, correctly guessing that I’d be interested in it. The cover—aside from being awesome in its own right—reminded me of a well-known piece of Macintosh clip art from the 1980s, which in turn was inspired by ukiyo-e, or Japanese woodblock prints, such as Kinko Echizen by Yoshikiyo Omori, ca. 1700. I’ve put these two images side by side for easy comparison. (OK, there’s your tiny art history lesson for the day!)


In How to Mashingo, readers are taught the basics of assembly language and program flow by a girl named Keiko (K子ちゃん). The first section of the comic book covers the basics, but most of the book is dedicated to Z80-specific and 6809-specific content. CPUs, pinouts, accumulators, program flags, opcodes, and more are all illustrated in a cute and laid-back style spanning nearly 200 pages.


My Japanese isn’t great, so I can’t guarantee that I’ll learn all the ins and outs of Z80 programming from this book. But I’ve enjoyed thumbing through it and picking up on familiar words and concepts from my 6502 programming background. And I absolutely love the illustrations of Keiko: she’s clearly competent when it comes to the intricacies of machine language and seems happy to share her knowledge while looking incredibly stylish in the process. (Note: If you’re interested in picking up a copy of this book, you may be able to find it on Amazon.)


Beglitched: A Super-Cute Game About… Computer Hacking!


If you crossed Sailor Moon with 1995 cult-classic Hackers with video games, you might very well get something like Beglitched. The upcoming puzzle game, in development by Hexecutable (Alec Thomson and Jenny Jiao Hsia), puts a unique magical-girl spin on the visual language of old operating systems and chat applications. Beglitched calls to mind bits and pieces of hacking games like Activision’s Hacker, Quadrilateral Cowboy, and especially—dare I say it?—the Mega Man Battle Network series, as well as pixelly puzzlers like Zoo Keeper.

I recently had the opportunity to chat with Jenny about her work on Beglitched and her artistic practice.

When I first got into games, I attended a lot of game jams and worked on small projects in my free time. Honestly, I feel so fortunate to end up where I am today, and I think the thing helped me a lot was having some doors close in my life, so that other opportunities could open up.

You can read the interview in full here.

Additionally, it was announced last week that Beglitched is among the Arcade Spotlight games for this year’s Fantastic Arcade, an annual indie and experimental games festival that I help out with a bit here in my hometown of Austin, Texas. So those of you in the area: be sure to catch Beglitched! And keep up with updates on Beglitched at beglitched.net.


“Women Join the Arcade Revolution” (Electronic Games, May 1982)

In May 1982, American gaming magazine Electronic Games published a cover story on the rise of “lady arcaders.” The article, titled “Women Join the Arcade Revolution,” suggests that women were just beginning to take part in what had “traditionally been a male hobby”: playing video games.


Magazine cover


Women Join the Arcade Revolution magazine spread


Women have officially arrived in the world of electronic gaming. They’re not just there for decoration, either […] Who are these lady arcaders?


Articles about the rise of women and girls in gaming have been appearing in print for decades, which itself raises interesting questions. Have women really ever fully “made it” into the gaming scene or community? Or does the landscape of gaming shift away from women as soon as they arrive? Nevertheless, this early example is interesting and gives some insight into the anxieties and hopes around future of gaming as seen from the early 1980s. You can read the entire article in PDF format at the Internet Archive.


Recap: New podcast episode, FEMICOM Game Jam #2 dates announced



The second episode of FEMI5, the five-minute FEMICOM podcast, is now available. This episode covers notable Barbie computer playsets of the ’70s, ’80s, ’90s, and ’00s.



In other FEMICOM news, the second FEMICOM game jam dates have been announced as August 14 through September 6, 2015. The theme of this jam will be announced on August 10, so check back then for the big reveal!


@popcutietxt is a bot that tweets fashion advice from a Nintendo DS game

Part of the fun of retrogaming is in thinking of new ways to keep old games alive so that they’re not forgotten. I’ve long wanted to pay homage to Pop Cutie! Street Fashion Simulation, a vastly underrated Harajuku-inspired fashion management sim released by Koei for the Nintendo DS in 2008.




Pop Cutie! does share some similarity with another DS fashion management sim that you might have heard of, the acclaimed Style Savvy, though it differs in a few key ways. Visually, the games are rather different: Pop Cutie!‘s visuals are comprised of well-crafted, cute pixel art and a persistent isometric view. The player’s shop has a blocky, almost LEGO-like appearance. The fashion sense of Pop Cutie! is a bit wackier than that of Style Savvy, including outfits and accessories such as “Penguin Suit,” “Beak,” and “Furball.” Finally, Pop Cutie! provides notable challenge compared to Style Savvy. The pace of the game is incredibly fast, meaning that you’ll have to catch fickle customers, passers-by, trends, and competitors in the blink of an eye. And unlike Style Savvy‘s nearly impossible-to-lose fashion contests, Pop Cutie!‘s fashion battles can be rather difficult, and you may find yourself repeating them again and again.


One thing that makes Pop Cutie! a particular standout among fashion games is that “boy” and “girl” fashions appear in equal quantities but are allowed on any player, regardless of gender. You can outfit any character with a beard or a miniskirt or both with no warning or penalty. And in fact, in-game NPCs will dress themselves in very fluid ways, as their only concern is with what items are at the height of fashion, not gender norms. For players who have felt boxed in by the strict gender rules of other fashion games, Pop Cutie! is refreshingly different.


Today, I was struck with an idea on how to share the amazingness of this sorely underloved retrogame: I created @popcutietxt, a twitter bot that tweets commentary, questions, and advice about fashion pulled straight from the game.



Indeed. You can follow @popcutietxt (and @FemicomMuseum, too!) on twitter.  


WIP: Some cute NES source code



For the past year or so, I’ve been working toward making my NES assembly source code more beautiful and navigable. Here’s a screenshot of code from a current work-in-progress NES homebrew game.


Electronic Polly Pocket (Tiger Electronics, 1994)



Electronic Polly Pocket (Tiger Electronics, 1994) is an LCD handheld game based on the popular Polly Pocket miniature toy line. In the game, Polly uses magic to transform skateboarding, a game of jump rope, and other playground fun.


Momo goes to the arcade



From Mahou no Princess Minky Momo (Famicom, 1992).


Idol Hakkenden (Famicom, 1989)



Idol Hakkenden (アイドル八犬伝) is an adventure game in which you play as an aspiring pop idol named Erika. This Nintendo Famicom game was released exclusively in Japan in 1989.